COMM3710 - Fall 2011 - Section 001 - Lecture Notes - 09/29

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Parsimony vs. fit (know this)
2 approaches: hypothetical deductive or grounded approach-critical, story
Grounded approach is inductive
Theory > operationalize > hypothesis > test >
Grounded approach: Observation > systematic analysis > theory
Epistemology: how do we know? Break it down to the smallest pieces possible
Ontology: do humans have free will?
Systems theory: a system is more than the sum of its parts
Questions of fact, value, and policy. We are concerned with questions of fact
Independent variables can be manipulated or measured
Dependent variables are always measured
Descriptive theories are ones that just describe
Explanation theories tell us how different concepts relate to each other
Descriptive statistics: central tendency – these stats try to explain the middle part of the data mean median mode

If you add or subtract the shape doesn’t change but if you multiply or divide it will.

Watch for percentage change.

Inferential stats: Estimating. Book reading on this is good read it before exam. Generalizing = estimation. If your shape isn’t normal then you won’t have an estimator. The best way to get a good est. is by increasing your “N” this is the central limits thermo. For a random sample everyone has to have the same chance to get selected.

Error: SD/ÖN if you quadruple the N then your error goes down by half
Type I: false positive
Type II: false negative
Decrease the type I error rate by decreasing alpha.

If the calculated value meets or exceeds the critical value then reject HO (the null). On the test it will be the calculated value is X and the critical value is X what should you do?

A systematic
The distribution of scores is the way all scores are spread out over all possible scores

For slides: QoF=A; QoS=C (these are apart of the grounded approach); QoA = B (training influences problems); D; D; D; D; A (SD/ÖN = 100/Ö(25) = 100/5 = 20; A (because the SD unit is 20 or the error unit); B; D; C; C